However, in 12 muslimmajority northern nigerian states, federalism has allowed the adoption of islamic shariah law in the criminal codes. Federalism in nigeria refers to the devolution of selfgovernance by the west african nation of nigeria to its federated states, who share sovereignty with the federal government. Even upon establishment of a confederation, these states keep their own sovereignty. The muhammedobasanjo 197579 administration created seven more states and instituted a 19state federal structure. The federal government is supreme in the federal structure.
Challenges of fiscal federalism in nigeria and solutions. The evolution, development and practice of federalism in. Argentina, belgium, brazil, canada, germany, india, malaysia, nigeria, pakistan, spain, south africa and the united states. The federalist movement of nigeria fmn federalism, true. Nigerian federalism, executive, and state structure. Federalism in nigeria refers to the devolution of selfgovernance by the west african nation of nigeria to its federated states.
Finally, the study shall be concluded with alternatives for remediationpolicy options. The state, however, has a power to create its own laws. The terms federalism and confederalism both have a root in the latin word foedus, meaning treaty, pact or covenant. A federal state is more than a loose alliance of independent states. There were ijaws, igbos, urhobos, itsekiris, yorubas. It defines a sovereign state characterized by the union of partially self.
True federalism and sustainable development in nigeria a. Fiscal federalism refers to the allocation of taxraising powers and expenditure responsibilities between levels of governments akindele s. Minorities forum, the association of inority states, the nigeria chapter of the ethnic minority rights organisation of africa, etc, suberu. In this sense, nation building is synonymous with national integration. Nigerian states have almost completely lost their autonomy. This practice of federalism seems an enduring phenomenon which remains destructive to the very essence of the nigerian nation.
The 1999 constitution of nigeria includes provisions protecting freedom of religious belief and prohibiting religious discrimination, and there is no official state religion. The relative roles of the three tiers of governmentthe federal government, the. Suberu the executive under the nigerian constitutions, 19601995 j. Sep 08, 2018 this was another aspect of the military rule that crippled the practice of true federalism in nigeria. The clamour for the adoption of true fiscal federalism in nigeria has been a burning issue in several quarters in the last three decades and has been documented in several articles, amongst which is the empirical study of arowolo 2011. However, be that as it may, to daniel 2007, it means several varieties of political arrangement in nigeria to which the term federalism has properly been applied. The feature of nigerian federalism could only be better understood by a reproduction of the definition of the concept federalism, professor nwabueze in his definition, defined federalism as an arrangement whereby governmental powers within a country are shared between a national, country wide government and a number of regional governments. The status of state governments in nigerias federalism oxford.
This research work xrayed federalism in nigeria as the only basis upon which nigeria can remain united despite its diversity and peculiar conditions in which the different tribal groups live in and proffers solutions to the challenges of the practice of. Nigeria has been a federal state since 1954, yet even this basic requirement of federalism has not been attained in the nigerian federalism especially in line with the postulations of professor kc wheare. Pdf a comparative study of fiscal federalism in nigeria. States creation and the political economy of nigerian federalism rotimi t. This comparative and historical analysis of the united states of america and nigeria examines the question on why federalism has not succeeded in managing and accommodating diversity in nigeria. As was with sudan, nigeria is often described along the religious line as a country with a muslim. Generally, african states, especially those of the subsahara, share common sociopolities born out of their analogous historical experiences. Unsystematic creation of new states resulted in an excessively bloated fiscal structure and many of the states created were not financially viable as they lacked the fiscal capacity to achieve any meaningful development.
The greatest problem of federalism in nigeria today is the general problems of the true nature of the federal relationship as manifested in the intense rivalry and confrontation between the federal and state governments. Both countries recognize the federal government as the power center of all states. Federalism, nigerian federal constitution and the practice of. This is because federalism is presented as a panacea in organizing distinct political identities under a state. One point is earned for an explanation of one way nigerias federal structure accommodates different religious groups. Comparative perspectives from canadian fiscal federalism olumide victor ekanade 0 1 2 recommended citation 0 redeemers university, ogun state nigeria 1 commons, other international and area studies commons, and the political economy commons 2 part of the african studies commons, comparative politics commons. Pdf on dec 3, 2015, terry andrews odisu and others published federalism in. In 1954, the nigerian founding fathers opted for a federal system of government despite its inherent challenges in a pluralistic society. In spite of this confusion, we can still conceptualize federalism. Advantages and risks federalism is a means of ensuring peace, stability and mutual accommodation in countries that have territorially concentrated differences of identity, ethnicity, religion or language. Compare and contrast nigerian and american federalism legit.
The supreme court and federalism in nigeria cambridge core. Governor bernard bourdillion the history of federalism in nigeria can be traced to the division of the country into three provinces northern province, western province and eastern province by governor bernard bourdillion in 1939. A chronology of critical events in nigerias political development from the adoption of a federal system in. Fiscal federalism concerns the division of public sector functions and finances among different tiers of government ozoeson, 2005. Federalism, the constitution and resource control by itse sagay in the beginning, there was no nigeria. Federalism is an idea, movement and a form of state organizing. These actions were what led to the development of federalism in nigeria today. Pdf as an effective instrument for the custodian of intra societal pluralism, federalism offers good prospect for attaining political stability and. Federalism is a political structure that allows states to unite under a central government to maintain a measure of independence and interdependence. In nigeria, states enjoy a level of sovereignty, but this sovereignty is within the constraints of the federal government as provided for by the constitution. Unfortunately, the essence of federalism in nigeria as not being fulfilled. Federalism and good governance in nigeria by alexander decker. The role of states and local governments prepared for the nigerian per steering committee by stuti khemani july 24, 2001 introduction 1.
Federalism, the constitution and resource control history by jmslimxm. Their common meaning until the late eighteenth century was a simple league or intergovernmental relationship among sovereign states based upon a treaty. Each state in nigeria has its own capital city and it is governed by an elected official known as a governor who serves a maximum of two 4 year tenures maximum of 8 years. The federalist movement of nigeria fmn is a body of concerned nigerians who strongly believe that something is obviously and fundamentally wrong with the structure of nigerias federalism which is responsible for the countrys consistent historical failures and underdevelopment. Buchan fiscal residuum theory was used to explain and analyze issues that relate to federalism, fiscal federalism and the challenges therein. India 1949, nigeria 1954, pakistan 1956, malaysia 1957 6. Ojo prognosis for the organisation of the executive arm of government in nigerias fourth republic bolade m. The courts federalism decisions were remarkably independent and reasonably balanced, upholding the constitutional supremacy of the federal government in several findings, tilting towards the states in some declarations, and simultaneously underwriting federal authority and state autonomy in other rulings. The states in nigeria and us can not separate from the central government. May 23, 2018 each order of government receives an allocation of financial resources tailored to their specific requirements. Auwalu musais a staff of mubinorth education authority, mubinorth, adamawa statenigeria. Federalism and ethnic conflict in nigeria united states. For the people of the niger delta, therefore, resource control is a solution to marginalisation.
Unlike a confederation, a federation or federal state is an institutional union. Federalism and political restructuring in nigeria in. This work recommends that the calls for the restructuring of federalism in nigeria under the constitution 1999as amended. Given the territorially delineated cleavages abounding in nigeria and the historical legacy of divisions among ethnic groups, regions, and sections, the federal imperative was so fundamental that even military governmentscharacteristically unitarian, hierarchical, and centralistattached importance to the continuation of a federal system of government.
Still, writers agree that nigeria and sudan were peculiarly similar. An evaluation of the origins, structure and features of nigerian. In this compelling new work, suberu examines the profound political contradictions that make up nigeria, a nation whose leaders have constantly tinkered with a colonial federal legacy that sought to balance the countrys three major ethnic groups. He explores the evolution of nigerian federalism through its various constitutional experiments and administrative redesigns, including those in. Still, the federal government laws will prevail if there is dispute. To start with, nigerias federalism fundamentally violated b.
In fact the protectorate of northern nigeria had been proclaimed before the northern states were conquered. To start with, nigeria s federalism fundamentally violated b. Federalism and nationbuilding in nigeria longdom publishing sl. These writers contend that the deeply flawed federal system in nigeria constitutes a grave threat to national integration, stability and development.
Federal theory and federalism in africa berihun gebeye. Specific reference to nigeria, including the following. The evolution, development and practice of federalism in nigeria. The oilproducing states have repeatedly argued that nigerias fiscal federalism, which encourages lopsided distributive politics, has been unfair to them.810 1533 955 462 1439 782 742 10 138 1295 1190 972 101 923 414 918 1643 1047 711 732 884 140 1140 1396 1292 495 557 1148 514 809 586 418 838